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The film had musical score by G. The music was composed by G. It is the seventh-largest country by area, the second-most populous country, and it is anubhaavangale by the Indian Ocean on the south, the Arabian Sea on the southwest, and the Bay of Bengal on the southeast. Indias Andaman and Nicobar Islands share a border with Thailand. The Indian subcontinent was home to the urban Indus Valley Civilisation of the 3rd millennium BCE, in the following millennium, the oldest scriptures associated with Hinduism began to be composed.
Social stratification, based on caste, emerged in the first millennium BCE, early political mandi took place under the Maurya and Gupta empires, the later peninsular Middle Kingdoms influenced cultures as far as southeast Asia.
In the medieval era, Judaism, Zoroastrianism, Christianity, and Islam arrived, much of the north fell to the Delhi sultanate, the south was united under the Vijayanagara Empire. The economy expanded in the 17th century in the Mughal empire, in the midth century, the subcontinent came under British East India Company rule, and in the midth under British crown rule.
A nationalist movement emerged in the late 19th century, which later, under Mahatma Gandhi, was noted for nonviolent resistance, in anubhavangalf, the Indian economy was the worlds seventh largest by nominal GDP and third largest by purchasing power parity.
Following market-based economic reforms inIndia became one of the major economies and is considered a newly industrialised country. However, it continues to face the challenges of poverty, corruption, malnutrition, a nuclear weapons state and regional power, it has the third largest standing army in the world and ranks sixth in military expenditure among nations.
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India is a constitutional republic governed under a parliamentary system. It is a pluralistic, multilingual and multi-ethnic society and is home to a diversity of wildlife in a variety of protected habitats. The name India is derived from Indus, which originates from the Old Persian word Hindu, the latter term stems from the Sanskrit word Sindhu, which was the historical local appellation for the Indus River. The ancient Greeks referred to the Indians as Indoi, which translates as The people of the Indus, the geographical term Bharat, which is recognised by the Constitution of India as an official name for the country, is used by many Indian languages in its variations.
Scholars believe it to be named after the Vedic tribe of Bharatas in the second millennium B.
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E and it is also traditionally associated with the rule of the legendary emperor Bharata. It was introduced into India by the Mughals and widely used since then and its meaning varied, referring to a region that encompassed northern India and Pakistan or India in its entirety. Ajubhavangale is one of the 22 scheduled languages of India and was designated as a Classical Language in India in and it was developed to the current form mainly by the influence of the poet Thunchaththu Ezhuthachan in the 16th century.
Malayalam has official status in the state of Kerala and in the union territories of Lakshadweep. It belongs to the Dravidian family of languages and is spoken by some 38 million people, according to one theory, Malayalam originated from Middle Tamil in the 7th century.
nanxi However, the current understanding proposes the separation of Malayalam from Proto-Dravidian in the pre-historic era, Malayalam aunbhavangale many elements from Sanskrit through the ages. Before Malayalam came into being, Old Tamil was used in literature and courts of a region called Tamilakam, including present day Kerala state, silappatikaramit was written by Chera prince Ilango Adigal from Chunkaparra, and is considered a classic in Sangam literature.
Modern Malayalam still preserves many words from the ancient Tamil vocabulary of Sangam literature, the earliest script used to write Malayalam was the Vatteluttu alphabet, and later the Kolezhuttu, which derived from it.
As Malayalam began to borrow words as well as the rules of grammar from Sanskrit. This developed into the modern Malayalam script, many medieval liturgical texts were written in an admixture of Sanskrit and early Malayalam, called Manipravalam.
The oldest literary work in Malayalam, distinct from the Tamil tradition, is dated from between the 9th and 11th centuries, the first travelogue in any Indian language is the Malayalam Varthamanappusthakam, written by Paremmakkal Thoma Kathanar in Due to its lineage deriving from both Tamil and Sanskrit, the Malayalam script has the largest number of letters among the Indian language orthographies, the Malayalam script includes letters capable of representing almost all the sounds of all Indo-Aryan and Dravidian languages.
Malayalam serves as a language on the islands including the Mahl-dominated Minicoy Island. The word Malayalam originated from the Sanskrit resp, Malayalam words malai or mala, meaning hill, and anubhavangald, meaning region.
Malayalam thus translates as hill region and used to refer to the land of the Chera dynasty, the language Malayalam is alternatively called Alealum, Malayalani, Malayali, Malean, Maliyad, and Mallealle.
The word Malayalam originally meant only for the name of the region, Malayanma or Malayayma represented the language. With the emergence of modern Malayalam language, the name of the language started to be known by the name of the region, hence now, the word Malayanma is considered by some to represent the olden Malayalam language.
The language got the name Malayalam during the mid 19th century, the origin of Malayalam, an independent offshoot of the proto-Dravidian language, has been and continues to be an engaging pursuit among comparative historical linguists. Cinema of India — The cinema of Anubbavangale consists of films produced across India. Cinema as a medium has gained popularity in the country. Indian films have come to be followed throughout South Asia.
Dadasaheb Phalke is known as the father of Indian cinema, the Dadasaheb Phalke Award, for lifetime contribution to cinema, was instituted in his honour, by the Government of India inand is the most prestigious and coveted award in Indian cinema. In the 20th century, Indian anuhavangale, along with the Hollywood and Chinese film industries, as ofin terms of annual film output, India ranks first, followed by Nollywood, Hollywood and China.
Enhanced technology paved the way for upgrading from established norms of delivering product. Visual effects based, super anubhavangalle science fiction, and epic films like Enthiran, Baahubali, Indian cinema found markets in over 90 countries where films from India are screened. The Indian government extended film delegations to countries such as the United States of America.
By as many as 30 film production companies had been listed in the National Stock Exchange of India, the South Indian film industry defines the four film cultures of South India as a single entity.
They are the Tamil, the Telugu, the Malayalam and the Kannada industries, although developed independently over a long period, gross exchange of film performers and technicians as well as globalisation helped to shape this new identity. With Stevensons encouragement and camera Hiralal Sen, an Indian photographer, made a film of scenes from that show, the Wrestlers by H. Bhatavdekar showing a wrestling match at the Hanging Gardens in Bombay was the first film ever to be shot by an Indian.
The female roles in the film were played by male actors, the film marked a historic benchmark in the film industry in India. Yesudas sings Indian classical, devotional and cinematic songs and he has recorded more than 50, songs in a number of Indian languages as well as Malay, Russian, Arabic, Latin and English during a career spanning more than five decades.
He has performed in most Indian languages except Assamese, Konkani and he also composed a number of Malayalam film songs in the s and s. Yesudas is fondly called Gana Gandharvan and he was awarded the Padma Shri inthe Padma Bhushan in and Padma Vibhushan in by the Government of India for his contributions towards the arts.
Yesudas was born in Fort Kochi, in the erstwhile Kingdom of Cochin, in a Latin Catholic Christian family to late Augustine Joseph and his father, who was a well-known Malayalam classical musician and stage actor, was his first guru. Yesudas was the eldest of five children, followed by three brothers and a younger sister. He started his music training at R. Later he studied at Swathi Thirunal College of Music, Thiruvananthapuram under the tutelage of the music maestro late Sh.
He completed the Ganabooshanam course at R. In he completed his 50 years as a playback singer, the first song sung by Yesudas is Jaathi Bhedam Matha Dwesham on 14 Novemberwhich he usually sings on all the special occasions in front of the audience.
Nair, Yesudas began his career in playback singing in the Malayalam movie Kaalpadukal and Tamil, Telugu and Kannada movies in the early s. He got the first break in his career with the hit Malayalam film named Bharya. Inhe sang hit songs in the composition of M.
Baburaj for the film Udhyogastha directed by P. Venu and he sang in Tamil for Bommai first, but the first released movie was Konjum Kumari. The trio of Salil, Yesudas and Prem Nazir entered the Malayalam Cinema Industry of the s, in he was nominated to head the Kerala Sangeetha Nataka Academy and was the youngest person ever to occupy the post. Sasi — Irruppam Veedu Sasidaran, better known as I. Sasi, is an Indian film director who has made over Indian films in various languages and genres.
He is known for his South Indian films of the s, s and he is also the winner of J. Daniel Award for the year Sasi, born on 28 Marchis married to Malayalam actress Seema on 28 August and he met her on the set of his film Avalude Raavukkal. Ever since, she has been his favorite heroine and they have worked together in more than 30 movies.
He has two children, daughter Anu and son Ani, Anu has acted in Symphony, directed by her father. Anu got married to Milan Nair on 10 December Sasi lives with his family in Chennai, I. Sasi started his film career as an art director. Later, after working as an assistant director in some films, though his name was not mentioned in the credits, the film turned out to be a huge success. He started his career officially with his first film Ulsavam.
Soon he carved out a name for himself in the Malayalam film industry and his films were known for their uniqueness and always contained a stamp of his directorial style.
Sasi has directed more than odd films over a span of 34 years and has constantly delivered super hits and his Malayalam film Avalude Raavukal permanently established his name in the industry. This film was dubbed into many other Indian languages including Hindi. It was the film in Malayalam to be rated as Adults only even though it was a drama.
One of Mohanlals first breaks as a co-hero Ineyengillum was also directed by I. He introduced Mammootty as a hero in his film Thrishna and he worked with Mammootty on more than 35 films.
He went on to one of Mohanlals biggest hits, Devaasuram. He has directed films in other languages, such as Hindi, Telugu. Madhu actor — Madhavan Nair, commonly known by his stage name Madhu, is an Indian actor who appears in Malayalam films.
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Madhu was a prominent lead actor during the s and s and he has also directed and produced films, and at one time owned the production company Uma Film Studio. He was awarded the Padma Shri by the Government of India in for his contributions towards the arts and he is the inaugural winner of Filmfare Award for Best Actor — Malayalam and has received three more Filmfare awards and is also the recipient of five Kerala State Film Awards.
He was born on 23 September at Gourishapattom, Trivandrum and his father, R. Parameswaran Pillai, was the Mayor of Trivandrum and his mother Kamalamma was a housewife. He had his education from L. During that time he chanced upon the a newspaper advertisement inviting applications for the National School of Drama Course, while studying at NSD, he became acquainted with Ramu Karyat, who offered him a role in his forthcoming film Moodupadam.
After completing the course, Madhu went to Chennai to screen test for Karyats film, while there, inhe was offered a role in N N Pisharodys film, Ninamaninja Kalpadukal and this became his debut. He had expressed all facets of life through his various acting roles, perhaps his most notable role was in Karyats Chemmeen, which won the Presidents Gold Medal. Madhu entered Malayalam cinema at a time when lead roles were dominated by actors like Prem Naseer and Sathyan, one of the early films of his career was Bhargavi Nilayam, a suspense movie, followed by Udhyogastha by P.
One of the most common leading co-stars that Madhu worked with and he later worked as a producer, director and storywriter. In an acting career spanning four decades, Madhu acted in over films and his first movie as a director is Priya released inin which he played the role of villain.
Although he was a big star in film, he was generous enough to act in parallel movies. He acted in Adoor Gopalakrishnans Swayamvaram, P. Menons Olavum Theeravum etc, madhus directorial venture Priya was a trend setter in Malayalam. In this movie he experimented with the character playing an anti-hero.
Madhu later directed about 14 films and he was the owner of once-renowned Uma studio.