ARCANUM DIVINAE SAPIENTIAE Encyclical of Pope Leo XIII, published in , on the sacrament of matrimony. Its main thesis is that the marriage contract. Arcanum Divinae has 8 ratings and 0 reviews. In this classic piece His Holiness Pope Leo XIII shares on Christian Marriage. Arcanum (also known as Arcanum Divinae) is an encyclical issued 10 February by Pope Leo XIII on the topic of Christian marriage. It was considered the.

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The encyclical also posits the Church as a protector of marriage, and not one interfering in the marital relationship. Arcanum taught that since family life is the germ of society, and marriage is the basis of family life, the healthy condition of civil no less than of religious society depends on the inviolability of the marriage contract.

The argument of the Encyclical runs as follows: The mission of Christ was to restore man in the supernatural order. That should benefit man also in the natural order; first, the individual; and then, as a consequence, human society. Having laid down this principle, the Encyclical deals with Christian marriage which sanctifies the family, i. The marriage contract, Divinely instituted, had from the beginning two properties: Through human weakness and wilfulness it was corrupted in the course of time; polygamy destroyed its unity, and divorce its indissolubility.

Christ restored the original idea of human marriage, and to sanctify more thoroughly this institution He raised the marriage contract to the dignity of a sacrament. Mutual rights and duties were secured to husband and wife; mutual rights and duties between parents and children were also asserted: Christ instituted His Church to continue His mission to men. The Church, true to her commission, has always asserted the unity and indissolubility of marriage, the relative rights and duties of husband, wife, and children; she has also maintained that, the natural contract in marriage having been raised to the dignity of a sacrament, these two are henceforth one and the same thing so that there cannot be a marriage contract amongst Christians which is not a sacrament.

Hence, while admitting the right of civil authority to regulate the civil concerns and consequences of marriage, the Church has always claimed exclusive authority over the marriage contract and its essentials, since it is a sacrament. The Encyclical shows by the light of history that for centuries the Church exercised, and the civil power admitted, that authority. But human weakness and wilfulness began to throw off the bridle of Christian discipline in family life; civil rulers began to disown the authority of the Church over the marriage tie; and rationalism sought to sustain them by establishing the principle that the marriage contract is not a sacrament at all, or at least that the natural contract and the sacrament are separable and distinct things.

Hence arose the idea of the dissolubility of marriage and divorce, superseding the unity and indissolubility of the marriage bond. The Encyclical points to the consequences of that departure in the breaking up of family life, and its evil effects on society at large. It points out as a consequence, that the Church, in asserting its authority over the marriage contract, has shown itself not the enemy but the best friend of the civil power and the guardian of civil society.

In conclusion, the Encyclical commissions all bishops to oppose civil marriage, and it warns the faithful against the dangers of mixed marriages.

The current pope is Francis, who was elected on 13 Marchthe office of the pope is the papacy. The pope is considered one of the worlds most powerful people because of his diplomatic and he is also head of state of Vatican City, a sovereign city-state entirely enclaved within the Italian capital city of Rome.

The papacy is one of the most enduring institutions in the world and has had a prominent part in world history, the popes in ancient times helped in the spread of Christianity and the resolution of various doctrinal disputes.

In the Middle Ages, they played a role of importance in Western Europe. Currently, in addition to the expansion of the Christian faith and doctrine, the popes are involved in ecumenism and interfaith dialogue, charitable work, Popes, who originally had no temporal powers, in some periods of history accrued wide powers similar to those of temporal rulers.

The earliest record of the use of title was in regard to the by then deceased Patriarch of Alexandria. Some historians have argued that the notion that Peter was the first bishop of Rome, the writings of the Church Father Irenaeus who wrote around AD reflect a belief that Peter founded and organised the Church at Rome.

Moreover, Irenaeus was not the first to write of Peters presence in the early Roman Church, Clement of Rome wrote in a letter to the Corinthians, c.

Ignatius of Antioch wrote shortly after Clement and in his letter from the city of Smyrna to the Romans he said he would not command them as Peter and Paul did.

Lex Christianorum: Natural Law of Marriage: Arcanum divinae sapientia

Given this and other evidence, many agree that Peter was martyred in Rome under Nero. Protestants contend that the New Testament offers no proof that Jesus established the papacy nor even that he established Peter as the first bishop of Rome, others, using Peters own words, argue that Christ intended himself as the foundation of the church and not Peter.

First-century Christian communities would have had a group of presbyter-bishops functioning as leaders of their local churches, gradually, episcopacies were established in metropolitan areas. Antioch may have developed such a structure before Rome, some writers claim that the emergence of a single bishop in Rome probably did not occur until the middle of the 2nd century.

In their view, Linus, Cletus and Clement were possibly prominent presbyter-bishops, documents of the 1st century and early 2nd century indicate that the Holy Divnae had some kind of pre-eminence and prominence in the Church as a whole, though the detail of what this meant is djvinae.


It seems that at first the terms episcopos and presbyter were used interchangeably, the consensus among scholars has been that, at the turn aarcanum the 1st and 2nd centuries, local congregations were led by bishops and presbyters whose offices were overlapping or indistinguishable. He was the oldest pope, and had the third longest pontificate, behind that of Pius IX and he is the most recent pontiff to date to take the pontifical name of Leo upon being elected to the pontificate.

He is well known for his intellectualism and his attempts to define the position of the Catholic Church with regard to modern thinking. In his famous encyclical Rerum novarum, Pope Leo divinqe the rights of workers to a wage, safe working conditions. In addition, he approved two new Marian scapulars and was the first pope to fully embrace the concept of Mary as Mediatrix and he was the first pope to never have held any control over the Papal States, after they had been dissolved by He was briefly buried in the grottos of Saint Peters Basilica before his remains were transferred to the Basilica of Saint John Lateran.

Until he lived at home with his family, in which counted as the highest grace on earth, as through her. Together with his brother Giuseppe, he studied in the Jesuit College in Viterbo ddivinae he enjoyed the Latin language and was known to write his own Latin poems at the age of eleven. In he and his older brother Giuseppe were called to Rome where their mother was dying, Count Pecci wanted his children near him after the loss of his wife, and so they stayed with him in Rome, attending the Jesuit Collegium Romanum.

InGiuseppe entered the Jesuit order, while Vincenzo decided in favour of secular clergy and he studied at the Academia dei Nobili, mainly diplomacy and law. In he gave a student presentation, attended afcanum several cardinals, for his presentation he received awards for academic excellence, and gained the attention of Vatican officials. Cardinal Secretary of State Luigi Lambruschini introduced him to Vatican congregations, during a cholera epidemic in Rome he ably assisted Cardinal Sala in his duties as overseer of all the city hospitals.

Pope Gregory XVI appointed Pecci on 14 Februaryas personal prelate even before he was ordained priest on 31 Decemberby the Vicar of Rome and he celebrated his first mass together with his priest brother Giuseppe.

He received his doctorate in theology in and doctorates of civil, shortly thereafter, Gregory XVI appointed Pecci as legate to Benevento. The smallest of papal provinces, Benevento included about 20, people, the main problems facing Pecci were a decaying local economy, insecurity because of widespread bandits, and pervasive Mafia or Camorra structures, who often were allied with aristocratic families. Pecci arrested the most afcanum aristocrat in Benevento, and his troops captured others, with the public order restored, he turned to the economy and a reform of the tax system to stimulate trade afcanum neighboring provinces.

Christianity — Christianity is a Abrahamic monotheistic religion based on the life and teachings of Acranum Christ, who serves as the focal point for the religion. It is the worlds largest religion, with over 2.

Christian theology is summarized in creeds such as the Apostles Creed and his incarnation, earthly ministry, crucifixion, and resurrection are often referred to as the gospel, meaning good news. The term gospel also refers to accounts of Jesuss life and teaching, four of which—Matthew, Mark, Luke. Christianity is an Abrahamic religion that began as a Second Temple Judaic sect in the mid-1st century, following the Age of Discovery, Christianity spread to the Americas, Australasia, sub-Saharan Africa, and the rest of the world through missionary work and colonization.

Christianity has played a prominent role in the shaping of Western civilization, throughout its history, Christianity has weathered schisms and theological disputes that have resulted in many distinct churches and denominations.

Worldwide, the three largest branches of Christianity are the Catholic Church, the Eastern Orthodox Church, and the denominations of Protestantism. There are many important differences of interpretation and opinion of the Bible, concise doctrinal statements or confessions of religious beliefs are known as creeds.

They began as baptismal formulae and were expanded during the Christological controversies of the 4th and 5th centuries to become statements of faith. Many evangelical Protestants reject creeds as definitive statements of faith, even agreeing with some or all of the substance of the creeds. The Baptists have been non-creedal in that they have not sought to establish binding authoritative confessions of faith on one another. Also rejecting creeds are groups with roots in the Restoration Movement, such as the Christian Church, the Evangelical Christian Church in Canada, the Apostles Creed is the most widely accepted statement of the articles of Christian faith.

It is also used by Presbyterians, Methodists, and Congregationalists and this particular creed was developed between the 2nd and 9th centuries. Its central doctrines are those of the Trinity and God the Creator, each of the doctrines found in this creed can be traced to statements current in the apostolic period.

The creed was used as a summary of Christian doctrine for baptismal candidates in the churches of Rome.

Arcanum Divinae (Christian Marriage)

Most Christians accept the use of creeds, and subscribe to at least one of the mentioned above. The central tenet of Christianity is the belief in Jesus as the Son of God, Christians believe that Jesus, as the Messiah, was anointed by God as savior of humanity, and hold that Jesus coming was the fulfillment of messianic prophecies of the Old Testament.

The Christian concept of the Messiah differs significantly from the contemporary Jewish concept, Jesus, having become fully human, suffered the pains and temptations of a mortal man, but did not sin. He was divnae first aecanum of Vatican City from its creation as an independent state on 11 February and he took as his zrcanum motto, Pax Christi in Regno Christi, translated The Peace of Christ in the Kingdom of Christ. During his pontificate, the hostility with the Italian government over the status of the papacy.


Pius XI created the feast of Christ the King in response to anti-clericalism and aarcanum took a strong interest in fostering divijae participation of lay people throughout the Catholic Church, especially in the Catholic Action movement. The end of his pontificate was divinze by speaking out against Hitler and Mussolini and defending the Catholic Church from intrusions into Catholic life and he died on 10 February in the Apostolic Palace and is buried in the Papal Grotto of Saint Peters Basilica.

In the course of excavating space for his tomb, two levels of burial grounds were uncovered which revealed bones now venerated as the bones of St. Achille Ratti was born in Desio, in the province of Milan, in and he was ordained a priest in and embarked on an academic career within the Church.

He obtained three doctorates at the Gregorian University in Rome, and then from to was a professor at the seminary in Padua and his scholarly specialty was as an expert paleographer, a student of ancient and medieval Church manuscripts.

Eventually, he left teaching to work arcaanum at the Ambrosian Library in Milan. During this time, diinae edited and published an edition of the Ambrosian Missal and he became chief of the Library in and undertook a thorough programme of restoration and re-classification of the Ambrosians collection.

He was also a mountaineer in his spare time, reaching the summits of Monte Rosa.

The combination of a pope would not be seen again until the pontificate of John Paul II. Inat Pope Pius Xs invitation, he moved to the Vatican to become Vice-Prefect of the Vatican Library, in OctoberBenedict was the first head of state to congratulate the Polish people on the occasion of the restoration of their independence. In Marchhe nominated ten new bishops and, soon after, Ratti was consecrated as a titular archbishop in October Benedict XV and Nuncio Ratti repeatedly cautioned Polish authorities against persecuting the Lithuanian and Ruthenian clergy, Ratti intended to work for Poland by building bridges to men of goodwill divunae the Soviet Union, even to shedding his blood for Russia.

Benedict, however, needed Ratti as a diplomat, not as a martyr, the nuncios continued contacts with Russians did not generate much sympathy for him divinse Poland at the time.

After Pope Benedict sent Ratti to Silesia to forestall potential political agitation within the Polish Catholic clergy, on 20 November, when German Cardinal Adolf Bertram announced a papal ban on all political activities of clergymen, calls for Rattis expulsion climaxed. The magnitude and depth of the reforms affecting all fields of Church life during his pontificate exceeded similar reform policies of his predecessors and successors, Paul VI was a Marian devotee, speaking repeatedly to Marian congresses and mariological meetings, diviane Marian shrines and issuing three Marian encyclicals.

Following his famous predecessor Saint Ambrose of Milan, he named Mary as the Mother of the Church during the Second Vatican Council, Paul VI sought dialogue with the world, with other Christians, other religions, and atheists, excluding nobody.

He saw himself as a servant for a suffering humanity and demanded significant changes of the rich in Arcanuj America. His positions on birth control, promulgated most famously in the encyclical Humanae vitae, Pope Benedict XVI declared that the late pontiff lived a life of heroic virtue and conferred fivinae title of Venerable upon him.

Pope Francis beatified him on 19 October after the recognition of a miracle attributed to his intercession and his liturgical feast is celebrated on divnae date of his birth on 26 September. Giovanni Battista Montini was born in the village of Concesio, in the province of Brescia and his father Giorgio Montini was a lawyer, journalist, director of the Catholic Action and member of the Italian Parliament. His arcanim was Giudetta Alghisi, from a family of rural nobility and he had two brothers, Francesco Montini, who became a physician, and Lodovico Montini, who became a lawyer and politician.

On 30 September rivinae, he was baptized in the name of Giovanni Battista Enrico Antonio Maria Montini and he attended Cesare Arici, a school run by the Jesuits, and inhe received a diploma from Arnaldo da Brescia, a public school in Brescia. His education was interrupted by bouts of illness.

Inhe entered the seminary to become a Roman Catholic priest and he was ordained priest on 29 May in Brescia and celebrated his diinae Holy Mass in Brescia in the Basilica of Santa Maria delle Grazie.

Montini concluded his studies in Milan with a doctorate in Canon Law in the same year, afterwards he studied at the Gregorian University, the University of Rome La Sapienza and, at the request of Giuseppe Arcahum at the Accademia dei Nobili Ecclesiastici.

Consequently, he spent not a day as a parish priest, in he helped found the publishing house Morcelliana in Brescia, focused on promoting a Christian inspired culture. Montini had just one posting in the service of the Holy See divihae Secretary in office of the civinae nuncio to Poland in Of the nationalism he experienced there he worte, This form of nationalism treats foreigners as enemies, then one seeks the expansion of ones own country at the expense of the immediate neighbours.

Divorce — Divorce should not be confused with annulment, which declares the marriage null and void, with legal separation or de jure separation or with de facto separation. Reasons for diivinae vary, from sexual incompatibility or lack of independence for one or both spouses to a personality clash, the only countries that do not allow divorce are the Philippines, the Vatican City and the British Crown Dependency of Sark.