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They may be either naturally occurring or synthetic. AHAs are well known for their use in the cosmetics industry. They are often found in products that aid in the reduction of wrinkles as well as to soften strong, defining lines and improve the overall look and feel of the skin.
Alpha hydroxy acid – Wikipedia
Understanding skin structure and cutaneous aging is helpful to a discussion of the topical action of AHAs. Human skin has two principal components, the avascular epidermis and the underlying vascular dermis. Cutaneous aging, while having epidermal concomitants, seems to involve primarily the dermis and is caused by intrinsic and extrinsic aging factors. AHAs are a group of organic carboxylic compounds. AHAs most commonly used in cosmetic applications are typically derived from food products including glycolic acid from sugar canelactic acid from sour milkmalic acid from applescitric acid from citrus fruits and tartaric acid from grape wine.
For any topical compound to be effective, including AHA, it must penetrate into the skin where it can act on living cells. Bioavailability influenced primarily by small molecular size is an important factor in a compound’s ability to penetrate the top layer of the skin. Glycolic acidhaving the smallest molecular size, is the AHA with greatest bioavailability and penetrates the skin most easily; this largely accounts for the popularity of this product in cosmetic applications.
AHAs have a profound effect on keratinization ; which is clinically detectable by the formation of a new stratum corneum. It appears that AHAs modulate this formation through diminished cellular cohesion between corneocytes at the lowest levels of the stratum corneum. AHAs with greater bioavailability appear to have deeper dermal effects. Glycolic acid, lactic acid, and citric acid, on topical application to photodamaged skin, have been shown to produce increased amounts of mucopolysaccharides and collagen and increased skin thickness without detectable inflammation, as monitored by skin biopsies.
Low concentration makes possible daily application as a monotherapy or as part of a broader skin care management for such conditions as acne, photo-damage, wrinkling as well as melasma.
Newer formulations combine glycolic acid with an hdroxiacidos acid such as arginine and time-release formulations that reduces the risk of irritation without affecting glycolic acid efficacy. The benefit of such short-contact application chemical peels depends on the pH of the solution the more acidic the product, or the lower the pH, the more pronounced the resultshidroxicidos concentration of GA higher concentrations hidroxiacdos more vigorous responsethe length of application and prior skin conditioning such as prior use of topical vitamin A products.
It is important to understand that glycolic acid peels are chemical peels with similar risks and side effects as other peels. Some of the side effects of AHAs chemical peeling can include bega, persistent redness, scarring, as well as flare up of facial herpes infections “cold sores”.
Although these compounds are related to the ordinary carboxylic acidsand therefore are weak acids, their chemical structure allows for the formation of an internal hydrogen bond between the hydrogen at the hydroxyl group and one of the oxygen atoms of the carboxylic group.
Beta hydroxy acid
Two effects emerge from this situation:. AHAs are generally safe when used on the skin as a cosmetic agent using the recommended dosage. The most common side-effects are mild skin irritations, redness and flaking. The severity usually depends on the pH and the concentration of the acid used. Chemical peels tend to have more severe side-effects including blistering, burning and skin discoloration, although they are usually mild and go away a day or two after treatment.
The FDA has also warned consumers that care should be taken bwta using AHAs after an industry-sponsored study found that they can increase photosensitivity to the sun. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article needs additional citations for verification.
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June Learn how and when to remove this template message. Improvement of photodamaged skin with alpha-hydroxy acid AHA: A clinical, histological, and ultra-structural study. Bulletin of the Chemical Society of Japan. Ullmann’s Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry.
Principles of organic synthesis. James Morriss3rd.
Alpha hydroxy acid
James; Bada, Jeffrey L. Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry. Indian Journal of Dermatology, Venereology and Leprology. European Academy of Dermatology and Hidroxxiacidos. Moy; Debra Luftman; Lenore S.