BURSERA GRAVEOLENS PDF

Bursera graveolens, known in Spanish as palo santo (“holy wood”) is a tree that inhabits the coast of Ecuador. The tree belongs to the same. Bursera Graveolens. Palo Santos sticks. 1 kilo= sticks.; Average lenght: 10cms (10x1x1 cm, 6grs. ea.) This product is elaborated without harming the. PDF | Bursera graveolens is a wild tree of commercial importance native to the Neotropics, which has been widely used in folk medicine. In the present study, the.

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However, a zone of individuals morphologically intermediate between the two exists on northern Santa Cruz Island and south-eastern Santiago Island, suggesting that they may not be reproductively isolated.

Here we review the species’ distributional and morphological differences and test for evidence of hybridization between the two species using DNA sequence and AFLP graveolsns. We find that the species lack distinguishing synapomorphies across the five nuclear and plastid regions examined. Furthermore, genotypic admixture levels among morphologically intermediate individuals do not indicate widespread hybridization.

Gravwolens, we recommend recognizing the endemic palo santo taxon as B. Future research should quantify phenotypic variation in palo santo populations as another means for understanding the basis of morphological differences between the subspecies. Palo santo trees Bursera Jacq.

Bursera malacophylla is allopatric from B. On both Santa Cruz and Santiago Islands, populations of Bursera individuals morphologically intermediate between the two species have been observed, the existence of which suggests that B. Its range also overlaps with that of the permanent and growing human population centres in the archipelago. One or more accessions were collected from each point location.

The morphological intermediates may be hybrid progeny of the two Bursera spp. Reports of hybridization between continental American Bursera spp.

Observations of material collected for this project have revealed that some specimens of B. It was also observed that twigs of B.

Palo Santo(bursera Graveolens)holly Stick 1 LB Original From Amazons Peru

Under the hybrid hypothesis, we would expect to detect genetic synapomorphies among the allopatrically distributed Galapagean Bursera spp. Such a finding would strongly support B. Alternatively, if genetic variation of individuals of B.

Leaf material and herbarium voucher specimens of all Bursera accessions were collected in the gravolens by A.

Tye see also Supporting Information, Appendix S1. A maximum of four trees was sampled at each location. Graveolrns material for DNA extraction was vursera over silica gel desiccant immediately after harvesting. In total, 87 accessions used for this study were collected from the dry zone on seven islands: The zone of intermediates was sampled east and west of the Canal Itabaca on the northern coast of Santa Cruz.

Allopatric populations of B. A continental American accession of B. Sequence strands were assembled and edited in Sequencher ver. The sequences were manually aligned in MacClade ver.

Bursera Graveolens Palo Santo Incense, Uses and Benefits

Phylogenetic gravellens of each marker were rooted with the Guatemalan accession of B. Thirty-six selective primer pairs were screened on four different tree accessions during the initial trial phase: Three selective primer pairs that yielded the most variable banding patterns among the four accessions were chosen for the AFLP analysis of all the bursea Prior to processing the bulk of the samples, all tree accessions were given index numbers so that data scoring could not be subject to inadvertent bias.

Electropherograms generated by the automated sequencer were scored using Genotyper ver. Fragment peaks with amplitudes less than fluorescence units buesera excluded from the scoring because of lack of confidence in their repeatability. A binary matrix was generated for the presence or absence of amplified fragments that were shared by one or more accessions. Fragments that appeared in all accessions were not scored.

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The first divided all 87 individuals into seven island-based populations regardless of their taxon designation.

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The second divided all 87 individuals into three taxon-based populations comprising B. The third population structure comprised two taxon-based populations that included allopatrically distributed individuals of B. The frequency of the recessive allele for each AFLP locus was determined using Bayesian estimation of the frequency of the recessive allele Zhivotovsky, rather than the square root method, which underestimates the frequency of recessive alleles and inflates measures of genetic graveoldns between populations.

The Bayesian method incorporates as non-uniform prior distributions the number of samples and fragment frequencies while assuming Hardy—Weinberg genotypic proportions within populations. Pairwise Nei’s genetic distances and Wright’s fixation index F st values for the hypothetical populations were calculated using estimated genotype ratios.

In order to determine whether each of the three hypothetical population structures had significantly more genetic busrera than random sampling would produce, a null distribution of F st values was generated from random permutations of each dataset. The significance of the correlation between genetic and geographical distances was estimated using 10 randomizations of the distance dissimilarity matrices.

Geographic distances between islands were calculated by measuring from graveolnes centre of each island using Google Earth ver. Mantel tests were repeated without the 66 Santa Cruz Island accessions in order to investigate possible bias introduced by the greater number of sampled individuals from that island. Two rounds of bkrsera searches using tree—bisection—reconnection were used; the first retained five trees with a length greater than 1 from each of random addition replicates and the second searched the pool of trees and retained a braveolens of 10 most-parsimonious MP trees.

A strict consensus tree was generated from the 10 MP trees. Bootstrap analyses of pseudoreplicate datasets searched 10 random addition replicates and retained each graveolenz to most-parsimonious trees each round. All analyses produced unrooted trees whose branches were then rotated to fit vertical page format. Two population assignment tests were employed to explore the partitioning of genetic diversity among Bursera individuals.

The first, AFLPop ver. Five AFLPop analyses were conducted: The probability value associated with braveolens likelihood score for each individual was assessed by constructing a distribution of scores derived from re-sampled genotypes.

Lastly, the strength of the assignments was tested burssera varying the minimum likelihood buraera MLD that an individual was required to have in order to be assigned to a specific population.

Individuals with scores that did not reach the MLD remained unassigned. An MLD of zero specified that the highest score was sufficient for assignment, whereas an MLD of 2 and 3 required that scores were 10 and 10 2 times greater than the alternative placements, respectively.

The second population assignment test used model-based clustering of genotype data in order to determine the best-fitting number of populations. The Bayesian clustering program Structure ver. Threshold q -values of 0. Analyses were run for generations using the correlated allele frequencies model and the admixture ancestry model.

Parameter estimates collected during the initial 25 generations included those that had not yet reached convergence and were discarded. Graphical display of the population membership coefficients for individuals was formatted using Distruct Rosenberg, Phylogenetic statistics for individual and combined marker datasets Table 2 revealed little sequence divergence among the seven accessions tested and no phylogenetically informative differences.

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No genetic synapomorphies were detected among the accessions of either B.

Three selective AFLP primer pairs chosen from the 36 busrera pairs yielded fragments between 40 and bp in length, 49 of which were variable Variable loci were referenced by the name of their selective primer pair and the size gravelens amplified fragment in base pairs. No loci were both uniquely present 1 and fixed in B. AFLP loci with distinct pattern of distribution among individuals of Bursera species and intermediates.

The null hypothesis for each of the three hypothetical populations examined using population genetic measures was that the genetic divergence between populations is not significantly greater than random. Nei’s genetic distance between B.

Among the smaller allopatric population dataset B. Distance-based phenetic analyses and parsimony-based phylogenetic analyses of the AFLP data matrix returned trees with low bootstrap support for their resolution and without consistent grouping of accessions based on taxon membership or island distribution. Neighbor joining NJ analyses of distance matrices based on Jaccard’s similarity index Fig. Forty-eight of 49 variable AFLP characters were potentially parsimony informative but were highly homoplasious.

The 10 most-parsimonious trees produced by heuristic searches were steps in length and had a consistency index of 0. Appended to each taxon label are its herbarium voucher number and abbreviated island distribution: The first genealogical group contained two accessions of B. The second genealogical group contained the remaining 13 accessions of B. Rerunning analyses without the intermediate accessions or the sympatric accessions of the two species alone resulted in the identical finding not shown that B.

Population assignment tests using AFLPop were unable to correctly reallocate the majority of island-based individuals to their original populations despite a range of Grafeolens values tested not shown. As MLD values were increased to two, the majority of all individuals could not be placed to any island. Taxon-based population assignment tests showed bhrsera consistent results across a range of MLD values Table 6. Allopatrically distributed members of Grabeolens.

Tests that allocated the morphologically intermediate individuals placed most or all individuals with either B. However, where putative hybrid populations were allowed, and assuming an MLD of zero, 11 of the 35 intermediate individuals were assigned to a hybrid population either F1, F1 backcross or F2.

These 11 individuals were,graveolen,and Numbers of individuals assigned to taxon-based populations as determined by AFLPop analyses using minimum likelihood difference values of 0, 1 and 2.

Species membership in genealogical groups was divided unevenly, such that B. Thirteen of 15 individuals identified as B. Twenty-seven of 37 individuals identified as B. Only four individuals identified as morphologically intermediate have admixed genotypes, Summary statistics of Structure analyses that test 1—7 population clusters K. The mean log likelihood of the data [L K ] from 10 simulations and its standard deviation are shown as closed circles with vertical bars.

Circles lacking bars have graveoleens deviations that do not extend beyond the point boundaries. Individual accessions are sorted by their species determination and island distribution. Proportion of genealogical group 1 light grey and genealogical group 2 dark grey membership are shown by the x-axis.

Previous molecular phylogenetic analyses of other Bursera spp. Rather, the results suggest that the taxa share a recent common ancestor and may be a single interbreeding lineage.