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To the chemistry student who like Nanoscience. Useful for thesis preparation on melanin. Granules of Rana pipiens skin taken from G. On the right Tyrosine-melanin granules taken from M. The granule is a melanosome in which any chemical or enzymatic activity is spent. Optically active oligomers were recently discovered Isomers have different conductivity. The DHI-melanin analysis R. Prota ” A reexamination of melanogenesis in the ink gland of cephalopods ” in Pigment Cell page ,Ed.

Seiji, University of Tokyo Press, The colour depends on the gap amplitude of the semiconductor model 827d. The EPR results raise significant questions: The models explain a number of properties like optical, magnetic, electrical, chemical, assembling of oligomers. The description of neutral and charged defects in conjugate polymers is based on Huckel calculations which have quantitative limitations. More sophisticated treatment of neutral and charged defects in polymers differ from Huckel description in quantitative but not in qualitative conclusions.

Interaction of radical and cationic centers or chirality of the oligomers may intervene in the assemblage process. Ugozzoll diazomethane may affect coem methoxy value and binding oxygen can mask hydroxylic and carboxylic groups. Melanins produced synthetically and isolated from biological systems act as amorphous semiconductors with threshold switching.

Melanins give off a flash of light when they switch electroluminiscence organic semiconductors. Artefacts of chmica, little known, from a chemical point of view, formed in the course of the synthesis or extraction from the biological sources, even in the blandest of conditions: It should be remembered that all prooblemi o. The material always has one oxygen more than the number present in the precursor catechol, 5,6-dihydroxyindoles, adrenaline, Link 15 risolfere, DOPAdopammine, methyl-catecholes and methyl-5,6-dihydroxyindolesetc.

Starting from tyrosine or DOPA by enzymatic or chemical oxidation a red solution the assembling moment of oligomers is obtained containing many species of quinones and phenols. The red solution is called dopachrome and any substances which decolorize the solution is called enzyme. Attempts of extraction and purification of melanins by problemmi mixing of the various organelles of the melanocyte have been made rksolvere The extraction of melanin from the various biological sources is, effectively, the extraction of granules and of uyozzoli melanosomes and premelanosomes.

The melanin which is obtained by the various extractive processes used to date is a set of particles partly formed during the course of extraction. The melanin which is obtained is, therefore, an artefact.


As consequence of the melanin beaviour analytical results of 36 85 obtained until now are doubtful. The study of pure granules fractions may be useful. Wishing to summarise we may claim that to k nobody has managed to isolate a particle equal to that contained in a granule of melanocyte. Effectively the black particles built with oligomers prblemi non-high molecular weight11 explode they break like a vase dropped from a height under LASER action.

It is possible that a similar reaction takes place because of the effect of an undocumented radiation or the collision of black interstellar particles.

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Speculation on the chemistry of interstellar black matter. The dark secret of life.

The reactions which lead to 5,6-dihydroxyindole DHI and to 5,6-dihydroxyindolecarboxylic DHICA would thus be under the rigid control of several enzymes and other factors.

As a consequence there should be an enzymatic system which regulates the construction of the black particle. It should be rlsolvere that among other things the sepia may also yield a melanin from a precursor other than the tyrosine, which certainly appears not to favour the notion of rigid enzymatic control of melanogenesis 37 Enzymatic systems, mainly belonging to pathological melanogenesis, which transform the dopachrome into DHI and DHICA have often been reported in the literature.

Risolvege studieshave found that there is a protein other than tyrosinase in the melanocytes which catalyses the conversion of the L-dopachrome at pH 6. Several names have been given to the enzymes and related substances like: DCF Dopachrome conversion factor b. The enzymatic activity was always based on the decoloration of the red solution, a decoloration which may be obtained with a plenty of inorganic and organic compounds. The enzyme seems to be present not only in the melanocytes of melanoma but also in the melanocyte of sepia ink A different enzyme which catalyses the conversion of the dopachrome into DHI seems to be present in insects 4.

To explain the chemical data, in contrast with the pdoblemi scheme, we suggested that the eumelanins originate from o. The form and size of the particle may be a distinctive element of the property of different melanins. Melanin is not a biological garbage as commonly believed. Per le figure riferirsi al LINK Questi contengono la BCM. Nel corso dei processi estrattivi un pigmento di composizione e struttura artificiale rispetto alla BCM si forma. Per tutti questi motivi i metodi analitici sono poco affidabili e in particolare quello proposto da 36 Altri tentativi di interpretazione degli spettri NMR sono stati fatti comparando melanine e i loro cosiddetti “free acids” tutte le melanine naturali si trovano sotto forma di sali.

Questi composti e i loro prodotti di ossidazione altamente citotossici possono essere considerati degli artefatti. Analoghe sono le formule del tetramero del catecol-chinone e del DHI chinone nelle forme idrate. Noi abbiamo spiegato questi dati con l’idratazione di un gruppo chinonico. Interessante per la formazione delle particelle nere la recente scoperta di oligomeri otticamente attivi Inoltre la tirosinasi agisce anche su altri fenoli che abbiano una posizione orto libera.


Noi guardiamo piuttosto alla esistenza di sistemi assemblatori degli oligomeri per la costruzione della particella e allo straordinario sistema elettronico presente negli oligomeri. Con la formazione di un nero da ciclodopa diversi problemi chimici e biologici inerenti alla BCM potrebbero essere chiariti.

Oligomeri radical polaronici a basso peso molecolare si assemblano per formare la particella. Gli studi chimici sulle melanine patologiche sono scarsi. Gordon, APNew York Thomson ” Melanins ” in Comparative Biochemistry pag. Nicolaus ” Melanins ” pag. Chedekel ”Melanin Standard Method: Particelle Description ”, Pigment Cell Research, 5, Eye melanin free radical kinetics and mechanism in relation to the Roginsky-Zeldovich or Elovich equation and the adsorption of oxygen by semiconductors.

Science The importance of the fact that melanin is black. A band model for melanin deduced from optical absorption and photoconductivity experiments. Acta Properties and function of ocular melanin. Photophysics and photochemistry of melanin. Electron transfer and photoprotective properties of melanins in solution.


Oxygen adsorption and photoreduction on fractal melanin particles. Physical studies on melanins. X-ray diffraction and ESR studies on amorphous melanin. X-ray diffraction studies on melanins in lyophylized melanosomes. X-ray characterization of melanins-I. X-ray characterization of melanins-II. The fundamental unit of synthetic melanin: Nicolaus, ” Divagazioni sulla struttura a banda del colore in natura: Nicolaus ”Melanins, Cosmoida,Fullerenes ” Rend.

Olivieri ” Riflessioni sulla materia nera interstellare ” Rend. Scherillo, ” La Melanina. Nicolaus ” Coloured organic semiconductors ”, Rend. Prota ”Origine e significato del colore negli animali ”, Rend. Nalwa, Hitachi Research LaboratoryJapan Lutzner ” Mammalian Melanosomal Proteins: Hearing “A model for melanosome biogenesis based on the purification and analysis of early melanosomes” Proc.

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Riley, ” Melanin ”J. Ito, BBA, Nicolaus ” Biogenesi delle melanine ”Accademia Nazionale dei Lincei, ConferenzeBiogenesi delle sostanze naturali, Roma Truscott ” A pulse radiolisis investigation of the oxidation of indolic melanin precursors: Foster, ” Analysis of the structure of synthetic and natural melanins by solid phase NMR ” Biochemistry 27, Foster, On the structure of eumelanins: Croonbridge, ” Solid-state 13C NMR characterization of melanin free acids from biosynthetic and natural melanins.

Characterization of a solubile melanin free acid from Sepia ink.