He tenido en cuenta esta necesidad en varias ocasiones, así también con respecto a las Glosas Emilianenses (Hamburg, , versión española Sevilla, ). The Glosas Emilianenses are several different kinds of glosses added to selected parts of a 10th-century manuscript from the region of La Rioja in Northern. Record Number: of Title: Glosas Emilianenses. Description: The website for the ‘Glosas Emilianenses’ offers a wide selection of scholarly works.

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Stylistic preferences which overrule syntactic considerations are a clear indication that grammar is not the main concern.

However, it has been suggested that some of the Romance glosses reflect the influence of the Basque language, the implication being that their author was a fluent Basque-speaker.

Another example shows us the pronoun nos marking the subject complement instead of the verb: For someone who wanted to explain Latin or translate or read the text, the marking of deo and uos with the pronoun nos would be strange. This marking makes sense if someone were to change the text physically, but not if someone were to change it mentally, as reading aloud or silently involves.

The first gloss qui antechristus may have been added for the purpose of understanding: The regularity of these changes and their synchronicity with later developments in the language unambiguously indicate that they are connected to diachronic developments in the word order.

´Glosas Emilianenses´ first examples of writing in Spanish and Stock Photo: – Alamy

The sentence reads et suscitabi bellum. Another subtype of grammatical glosses consists of the personal pronouns ego, tu, nos and uos, which gloss verbs. This way of interpreting the language community, together with the fact that the texts eilianenses mostly sermons, have led to an alternative hypothesis, namely that they were guidelines or tools meant to facilitate reading the texts aloud, 5 perhaps for a person who did not speak Ibero-Romance.

If the glossator were a teacher, this would be where he would stress the need for agreement to his students.

Glosas Emilianenses

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. In a diglossic community H is the high variety, learnt in school and used in formal situations, while L is the low variety, acquired as a mother tongue and emilianejses in informal situations. The didactic hypothesis supposes a certain degree of diglossia. In this example et is marked o, but when we move uere behind fratres as the sequential glosses indicate, it becomes clear that fratres should be preceded by the gloss o giving.


In many instances, the apparent reason for glossing is stylistic. V, [u] [ ]. Frequently these glosses display Romance features as concerns spelling, morphology and vocabulary. I have shown that many of the changes indicated by the grammatical glosses are stylistic in nature rather emikianenses syntactic or grammatical.

Stylistic changes Glsoas are features among the grammatical glosses that indicate their not having to do with learning Latin. This fact strongly suggests an endeavour connected to changing and improving the text, and support the hypothesis that the glosses are adaptations of the texts to contemporary needs.

They were probably not even intended for a different individual than the glossator himself. Combining the stylistic element with the relative complexity, I suggest instead that these glosses may have been intended as emendation marks for a scribe. It may also have been an impersonal passive. The Glosses were formerly considered to include the first instances of early Spanish. These oddities may not be merely dismissed as errors; they are too regular for that.

Another example shows us the pronoun nos marking the subject complement instead of the verb:. The sequential glosses generally mark the word order in the manuscript.

Concluding remarks I have shown that many of the changes indicated by the grammatical glosses are stylistic in nature rather than syntactic or grammatical. The two following cases of multiplicabitur show similar behaviour. This combination of modifications is difficult to fit into the didactic hypothesis. Other scholars, however, believe that the vernacular variety and the variety used in the written texts substantially belong to the same language variety, and emiliajenses the above hypothesis unconvincing.

This supposed Latin teacher had no problem overlooking that the verb was in the passive, and that canonical passives cannot allow direct objects, but he insisted on agreement between subject and verb.

However, if we move the words in the order that the sequential glosses indicate, the pronouns are placed accurately.


They are often, but not always, placed in the margin and are connected to the base text word by means of a symbol, often a neume. This example is the opposite of what we saw above; the position meilianenses the gloss emklianenses not connected to the word in the base text, but to the position of that word in the text after it has been changed by the sequential glosses.

En vasco aparecen dos glosas: However, I have shown that the complexity of the glosses suggest that the performance would not be done directly using the glossed manuscript. The latter two would have been the vernacular languages in the region surrounding the monastery, although there is a possibility that the author of the glosses was an incomer to the area.

The second gloss, ambulauit qui emilianeenses ad ke, however, is a pure repetition of what comes before, and is not likely added for purposes of understanding, neither the meaning of the sentence nor its grammatical structure.

The translations are mine unless otherwise stated. The o makes perfect sense when the a-marked word is moved, and suggests that the emilianenxes was not intended to be used as it is for reading either silently or aloud.

´Glosas Emilianenses´ (around ), first written Spanish text Stock Photo: – Alamy

It also indicates that Latin grammar, as we understand it, is not the chief concern of the glossator. There is no apparent reason emilianensess signa in one case should be tagged nominative and in another accusative. In fact, they would create confusion if they were meant to be used as they are; since the position of a gloss makes no sense glossing the word in the base text unless the indications of the sequential glosses are followed.

Suyos son aquellos versos que dicen: I suggest that the Glosas Emilianenses were emendation marks in the manuscript, meant as guidelines to a scribe when copying a new version of the sermons.

On folio 67r, for instance, the gloss aflarat, a periphrastic future, is attached to jnueniebit.