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It consists of fine-tuned single measures such as Minimum Energy Performance Standards MEPSa roadmap with near- and long-term goals, financial incentives and preferential loans to exceed MEPS in new build and to trigger refurbishmentEnergy Performance Certificates, individual advice and information platforms for home builders and -owners as well as for non-residential actors, professional training, the promotion of energy services, and various research and demonstration programmes.
The Energy Efficient Refurbishment and Construction Programmes are probably the most well-known single measures, both implemented by the KfW. While the former successfully reduced annual energy consumption by 2, GWh 0. Activities implemented by the consumer protection agencies as well as state and local governments and private initiatives complement these central government programmes. Based on the EnEV, both the Energy Performance Certificates and an additional seal of quality have been developed, and Dena has developed a certification scheme, the Efficiency House EH, Effizienzhausin order to calculate energy performance of buildings.
In order to increase the German refurbishment rate and to make new buildings more efficient than demanded by regulation, the government offers financial incentives for all building sectors e. The KfW makes use of the EH scheme and of the financial support provided by the government for energy audits, carried out by specially trained and certified energy advisors, to determine the EPC and possibly the EH.
The better the EH standard, i. Information on funding possibilities and opportunities to save energy are most prominently provided through consumer information centres and the special trained energy advisors. In the long run, byGermany attempts to reach a building stock that emits close to zero emissions, i. Germany has established a comprehensive package in order to increase the energy efficiency of its building stock, which consists of 17 million residential buildings with 3.
Since then, Germany has tightened its minimum energy performance standards for new buildings several times with the Energy Savings Ordinance EnEV. By requirement of the EU Directive on the overall energy performance of buildings, the MEPS will need to be further strengthened so that all new buildings from January will be nearly zero energy buildings.
The latter especially includes the use of renewables to satisfy energy demands. Funding is generated by the German Energy and Climate Fund and can be used for urban planning as well as for the refurbishment manager KfW a.
In Germany, the development of completely new quarters or suburbs is a relatively rare case. However, in such cases several local authorities have performed energy-efficient urban district planning. One example is the Kronsberg district in the City of Hanover. Explore the policy guide and find the good practice example. Government agencies and budget Apart from German Energy Agency, the government-owned KfW Bankengruppe KfW has become a major player in making the German building stock energy-efficient.
First, it administers large amounts of the budget the German government has allocated to the sector through its loan and grant programmes. However, energy-intensive industries are exempted from energy taxes and other measures which increase electricity costs in Germany. According to the government, this is done to level the playing field for German industrial sectors in international and European competitive markets and, thus, to safeguard jobs in Germany.
Moreover, an ecological tax reform was introduced in to in order to reduce environmentally harmful behaviour. The respective law Germ.: The revenues are used to reduce the contributions by employees and their employers to the German public pension fund system. Regulation of energy companies For electricity and gas distribution network operators, there is a nearly full decoupling of allowed revenues from the amount of energy transported Ordinance on the incentive regulation, ARegV.
By contrast, there is no explicit cost recovery for energy efficiency programmes operated by energy companies in Germany. It was revised three times, Sinceevery new building that needs energy for cooling or heating with some exceptions must be built in line with the EnEV The performance-based MEPS covers heating, cooling domestic hot water and, for non-residential buildings only, lighting and ventilation. The maximum primary energy consumption allowed has to be calculated with comparison to a reference building and depends on the surface-to-volume ratio.
However, the exact definition of this term is still under development. However, the energy performance quality of the building must not be decreased. Furthermore, EnEV makes it compulsory for some building owners to replace old energy-wasting installations.
Heating pipes need to be insulated if they run through unheated rooms Tuschinskipp. In attics not used for living, the roof or the upper ceiling has to be insulated.
Although investors take the main responsibility for refurbishments and constructions to stick to EnEVexperts that were assigned by the investor ensure that their measures are in line with the EnEV, too Tuschinskip.
There is no compliance control for renovation. Other legal requirements Individual metering and billing of heating and domestic hot water: According to the Heating Cost Ordinance Germ.: Heizkostenverordnung costs for heating and heizkostenvfrordnung hot water are to be metered individually.
Regular inspection of boilers and non-residential air conditioning AC: Sincesome boilers and Air conditioners ACs need at least one inspection.
This is applicable for boilers with more than 20kW used for space heating purposes and older than 15 years.
These need at least one check up while boilers using more than kW need inspections every two years. In addition, there are annual inspections of the energy efficiency required by the Heizanlagenverordnung and carried out by the chimney sweeps. ACs with a nominal capacity of more than 12kW require inspection, as well. Since January 1stmeasuring point operators have been required to install smart meters in new buildings as well as in existing buildings where large refurbishments are conducted.
The Intelliekon project for example analysed energy saving potentials of private households through smart meters. With respect to new buildings, the architect or the construction company issues the EPC. The EPC consists of five pages. First of all, basic information such as the building type e. Based on all the building information, both the final energy demand and the primary energy demand are given and visualised on a scale, with green signalling low energy demand and red indicating a rather high demand see the next figure.
Basically, it is a voluntary certification scheme with the central goals to strengthen the market for energy efficient homes, to increase demand and to push bandwagon effects Denap. A new building can be constructed in line with the EH scheme. The KfW makes use of the EH scheme and of the financial support provided by the government for heizkostenveroednung audits carried out by specially trained and certified energy advisors to determine the EPC and possible the EH.
Apart from the primary energy demand, the loss of heat due to transmission must meet certain standards, too.
Heizkostenvetordnung the primary energy demand of a heizmostenverordnung building has become the same as that required for a new building or even better, building owners can apply for a Seal of Quality EH.
Within the Efficiency House Scheme developed by Dena, building owners can reach better label values for better building performance.
Apart from the primary energy demand, a building must also adhere to certain standards regarding the heat loss via transmission.
Good practice package for buildings in Germany
The certification scheme consists of five categories for existing buildings: The heizkostenvrordnung are the relative value in primary energy demand of a building with regard to the legislative requirements for a comparable new building. Three categories exist for new buildings having undergone energy-efficient renovation: Apart from the primary energy demand, there are minimum standards regarding heat loss due to transmission. This EPC differs from the standard EPC, as it requires an onsite visit by an energy advisor and a report with information about the building material used.
The advisor also needs special qualifications Denap.
The Passivhaus Institut with its headquarters in Darmstadt certifies passive houses. Building owners can also order a label for visibility purposes.
Building owners are eligible for funding if the building application was approved before In a study IFEU the energy advisory service received positive feedback. Adding action that investors had planned already before the consultancy or that can be attributed to other elements of the package e. The KfW, in general, recommends getting advice from an energy advisor in order to avoid lost opportunities. If the goal is to achieve EH 55, an energy advisor is necessary at the planning stage and during the whole construction process.
Expenses for this consultation service can be funded too. According to Duddap. Small and Medium sized companies may apply for KfW grants to receive initial energy efficiency advice Germ.: Based on this first advisory service, grants heizkostenerordnung also available for an in-depth consultation. It comprises on-site visits, assessments of building condition, consultation regarding the current EnEV, recommendations for energy-related building improvements and cost-reduction assessment as well heizkostenvetordnung giving advice for funding programmes.
The programme has provided financial support for very energy-efficient new homes since to date proKlima a, p. Baubegleitung to residential builders or building owners.
Sensors for Heat Metering and the Renewable Heat Premium Payment (RHPP): REHVA
Energieberatung in Verbraucherzentralen to gain heizkostenverordnumg about energy efficiency improvement for their buildings. The more data about the building e. After this estimation, the advisor can propose which measures may increase the energy efficiency of the respective building. However, some questions cannot be answered without an on-site visit cf. Many agencies provide information leaflets, campaigns, websites, or mobile energy advice in specially equipped buses.
Sincealmost 4 million visitors received concrete online advice. 0212 third of all recent building refurbishments in Germany were carried out using information from one of the heizkowtenverordnung tools. This has, in combination with personal follow-up advice and financial incentives provided by the German government, contributed to actions that reduce greenhouse gas emissions by 1.
The heizkostenverordmung of the online tools is estimated to be one quarter of this. Moreover, Dena is mainly responsible for demonstration heizkostengerordnung, which are important a to research, using these buildings as a testing ground and b to make energy efficient housing more concrete to the public.
Users can enter their postal code and are provided with various data about energy efficient buildings. Information includes such things as the floor area, final and primary energy demand before and after the refurbishment and funding opportunities that were used Dena d.
Moreover, the Passivhaus Institut, which also certifies heiskostenverordnung houses, administers a similar database as well. It is also possible to visit some passive house buildings at fixed dates. This initiative aims at disseminating information on energy efficiency to households, the industrial sector and the service sector. Energy efficiency in buildings is one of several efficiency topics. Private households are provided with information about various energy saving measures.
Although the focus is rather on appliances e.