Properties of the bond. •. KLEIBERIT , as a one component glue, meets the requirements of stress group D3 according to DIN/EN (See test certificate. Kleiberit PVA/MDF Glue. (KL) Safety Data Sheet. Safety data sheet according to EU / Printing date Revision: Version-No. D3 Adhesive KLEIBERIT D3 Adhesive , proven a millionfold, is a water re- sistant white glue for D3 bonding according to DIN/EN and also. D4 with.
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This research project deals with PVAc adhesives, their properties, and conditions of use. The primary objective of this study is to verify the dependence of the kleibedit increase in a bonded joint on the curing time.
The bonding process used the following PVAc adhesives: The readings were converted into charts demonstrating the strength increase in the bonded joints.
The tested adhesives achieved this value in a time period of 75 min to min, depending on the adhesive type.
It also follows from the measurement that the results differ depending on the sort of adhesive. Adhesives are an integral component of industrial production, and the wood processing industry is no exception. They are constantly undergoing improvement, and consumption of different adhesive types has been growing significantly. Today, there is also an emphasis on the non-toxicity of adhesives, which has led to efforts to replace formaldehyde-based industrial adhesives with adhesives of different compositions, such as PVAc dispersions Tout ; Kim and Kim The properties of different types of PVAc adhesives are modified by the addition of various kinds of plasticisers e.
At present, manufacturers indicate the minimum pressing time, but they typically do not specify the time for further processing. No studies have been conducted more recently. However the composition and production process of PVAc adhesives has been developed since that time, so their properties may differ. The hardening indicator is important in terms of planning the efficiency of continuous production, prevention of potential downtime and manufacturing defects, and minimisation of risk related to occupational safety Uysal The hardening of PVAc dispersions involves no chemical reaction or structural change.
It is only a physical process in which the wood absorbs water from the PVAc adhesive, producing a continuous film on its surface. A process known as coalescence occurs when the dispersion dries. The dispersion loses water and the polymer particles gradually come closer together until the substantial capillary forces compress them with such force that they pervade each other bond.
Most dispersion films are colourless once they dry.
Dispersion adhesives are characterised by a relatively rapid strength increase in the bonded joint even at normal temperatures. This paper describes the exact process. The aim of this study is to determine the values of strength of bonded joint with use of PVAc adhesives within certain time periods, and further to compare PVAc adhesives from various manufacturers and find out differences among them.
Another objective is to compare results with other authors. The surfaces intended for bonding must be worked by planar milling or grinding no earlier than 24 h before the bonding. Dust must be removed carefully.
The surfaces prepared in this way must not be touched or dirtied. The test objects were made by simple lapping method Fig. It is recommended that the bonded parts of these test objects are not attached to one another with the same direction of annual rings.
When clamping the objects in the test machine, the tensile force must act centrally and at the plane of the adhesive layer. Kleiiberit conditions are achieved by using spacer inserts or through an appropriate arrangement of the clamping jigs.
This method was chosen because it enables kleiberif of bonded samples even after a short time, unlike the first method.
This fact was klejberit for the test in question. The conditions of bonding application quantity, open time, pressure were held in accordance with values given by manufacturers of the adhesives. For the first 90 min, the pressing times were identical with the time periods kleibedit measurements. Then the pressing time ranged from the minimal value given by manufacturer to approximately 2 h.
After this time the pressing was finished and the bonded specimens were held in kleibetit above-mentioned conditions until the examination was done. Kleinerit strength of the bonded joints was measured after 5, 7, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 40, 50, 60, and 90 min, after 2, 3, 4, 6, 8, 12, 24, and 48 h, and after 7 days. The times shown are times after the start of pressing following the start of the test in the tensile testing machine.
The strength increase in the bonded joint was measured for three commonly available polyvinyl acetate dispersion adhesives, specifically, Kleiberjtmade by Kleiberit; Propellerleim lkeiberit, 4B, made by Rhenocoll; and Provotil, made by Collanti Concorde.
The test was performed with enough test objects so that each test would produce at least 10 valid results. Invalid results are those where the failure occurs in the wood rather than in the adhesive layer, or where it is visually evident that the adhesive was not applied properly. The test objects were evaluated in a device such kleiebrit both ends of the object were clamped in the machine jaws along a length of 40 to 50 mm. Arrangements were made so that the force would act centrally and along the bonding plane.
This statement is confirmed by the results of our measurements summarized in Tables 2, 3, and 4. For Kleiberit and Provotil, the average strengths kpeiberit the bonded joints after 1 h of curing were 6. Propellerleim 3W, 4B shows a remarkably fast strength increase in the bonded joint, achieving 9. Figure 3 shows the exact process of strength increase in the bonded joint between 5 min and 7 days of curing. It is evident from Fig. Maximum strength after 7 days reached The most important practical fact is the exact pattern from the start of the curing to the point where 10 MPa is reached.
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Figure 4 shows this pattern. The fastest strength increase was seen in Propellerleim 3W, 4B, which achieved 10 MPa after 75 min of curing.
Kleiberit showed the slowest strength kleigerit, achieving the standard-defined 10 MPa in min. The growth curve for Provotil was in between the aforementioned adhesives, achieving the standard-defined value in min.
The situation changed after some time; Kleiberitwhile showing the lowest increase over short times, equaled the strength of Provotil at min and showed a greater strength increase after that.
At min, its strength equaled that of Propellerleim 3W, 4B, and it subsequently maintained the greatest strength until 7 days after bonding. The other two adhesives Kleiberit and Provotil achieved the value later and min, respectively. This means that PVAc adhesives have evolved sincebut the evolution has not affected the speed of the strength increase in the bonded joint.
Propellerleim 3W, 4B Plus showed a statistically significant difference 033 7 and min of pressing time, over which range it showed the highest strengths.
After min of pressing time, its strength decreased and fell below the values of Kleiberit The strength of this adhesive demonstrably differed from that of Propellerleim 3W, 4B Plus from the very start of measurement 5 min until min: From 2 to 7 days of curing, its strength demonstrably increased compared to the other adhesives tested.
Provotil demonstrably differed from Propellerleim 3W, 4B Plus between 7 min and min of curing; it differed from Kleiberit between 7 min and 50 min of curing and then from 2 to 7 days of curing.
Organic Indoor Air Pollutants: M, and Jang, S. Jr, and Sakuno, T. September 3, ; Peer review completed: November 6, ; Revised version received and accepted: December 16, ; Published: Strength increase pattern in joints bonded with PVAc adhesives. Abstract This research project deals with PVAc adhesives, their properties, and conditions of use. Test device The test device was a testing machine with a constant speed of thrust as described in ISO Number of test objects The test was performed with enough test objects so that each test would produce at least 10 valid results.
Glue for a tree of KLEIBERIT 303.0 D3, D4
Tensile shear test The test objects were evaluated in a device such that both ends of the object were clamped in the machine jaws along a length of 40 to 50 mm. Overview of Measurement Readings for Kleiberit Fig. Strength increase in bonded joints over time, 5 min to 7 days It is evident from Fig.
Strength increase in bonded joints over time, 5 min to 8 h Fig. These adhesives achieve the value in a time period from 75 min to min, depending on the adhesive type. The results indicate that the ultimate strength does indeed only stabilize after 7 days of curing; nevertheless, the standard-defined value can be achieved in a time times shorter with one selected adhesive Propellerleim 3W, 4B.
The ultimate strength of the adhesives tested stabilised at values from It was determined that the adhesive with demonstrably the highest strength increase in the bonded joint may not necessarily show the highest kleiberif strength Propellerleim 3W, 4Bconversely, the adhesive with the slowest strength increase may well achieve the highest final kkeiberit Kleiberit Furthermore, it follows from the measurements that the results differ from manufacturer to manufacturer.