Lignosus rhinocerus (Cooke) Ryvarden () [MB#]. Lignosus rhinocerus (L. rhinocerus), which is known locally as Tiger Milk mushroom, is traditionally used in the treatment of asthma by. One of the most sought-after species used for this purpose is the wild Tiger’s Milk mushroom (Lignosus rhinocerus), which comes from the.
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However, to date, its efficacy on asthma has not been confirmed by scientific studies and there is also sparse information available on its active constituents.
In this study, the volatile constituent of L.
The potential effects of L. Sequential extraction using five solvents petroleum ether, diethyl ether, hexane, ethyl acetate and ryinocerus was conducted prior to GC-MS analysis. Male Sprague Dawley rats were divided into the following four groups of five animals each: GC-MS analysis revealed the presence of five main groups alkane, fatty acids, benzene, phenol and dicarboxylic acid with a total of 18 constituents.
Asthma affects million people worldwide and is a result of a complex interplay between genetic and environmental factors [ 1 ].
Allergic asthma is a chronic disease characterized by recurrent wheezing, shortness of breath, chest tightness and coughing.
The airway disorder is commonly characterized by airway eosinophilia infiltration, increased serum immunoglobulin E IgE and T-helper 2 Th2 cytokine levels such as interleukin IL -4, IL-5 and IL [ 2 ], as well as excessive production of airway mucus.
The Th2-dominated response is initially triggered when an airway allergen is taken by the dendritic cells and presented to specific Th cells by means of major histocompatibility complex MHC class II, thus stimulating the immunological synapse.
Activated allergen-specific Th cells then polarize into Th1 or Th2 effector populations, differentiate and expand into a Th2 subpopulation. The activated Th2 cells function in recruiting and activating cytokines, including IL-4, IL-5 and IL, following stimulation of eosinophils. IL-4 cytokines have been reported to cause class switching of B cells, resulting in IgE synthesis, which is involved in mast cell degranulation [ 3 ]. The key role of IL-5 cytokines includes their involvement in the growth and differentiation of bone marrow eosinophils, as well as their release into the peripheral circulation [ 4 ].
Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Additionally, IL-5 also increases the activity of eosinophil recruitment, activation and survival at the sites of inflammation [ 5 ]. Various studies are therefore primarily focused on products that have the potential to reduce IgE, IL-4, IL-5, IL and eosinophils as therapeutic targets for asthma treatment [ 7 — 10 ]. Current asthma medications are mainly based on steroids and other types of anti-inflammatory drugs [ 11 ].
Among the available drugs, inhaled corticosteroids ICSs are very effective, as they suppress chronic airway inflammation in patients with asthma [ 12 ]. ICSs are generally considered harmless, though persistent use of ICSs at higher doses often leads to various systemic and local side effects [ 13 ], some of which include candidiasis, osteoporosis, growth retardation, cataracts and pharyngitis [ 14 ].
Thus, a safer alternative for the management of asthma is needed. The tuber is purported to contribute the most medicinal value, and the indigenous populations in Peninsular Malaysia utilise it to treat diseases such as asthma, fever, breast cancer, stomach cancer and food poisoning, as well as to heal wounds [ 1516 ].
Previous studies have demonstrated anti-proliferative activities [ 17 ] and immunomodulatory properties [ 18 ] of this mushroom sclerotial. A recent study by Lee et al. However, to date, no studies have been reported on the anti-asthmatic properties of L. Thus this study reported anti-asthmatic effects of L. A sequential liquid-liquid extraction was performed using 1 petroleum ether, 2 diethyl ether 3 hexane, 4 ethyl acetate and 5 methanol. The selected solvents ranged in polarity starting from non-polar petroleum ether, diethyl ether and hexane to more polar solvents ethyl acetate rhinocerua methanol to take advantage of their different properties.
The residue was used for subsequent extraction using diethyl ether followed by hexane, ethyl acetate and finally, methanol, as previously described for petroleum ether. Following extraction by each solvent type, the samples were individually injected into the GC-MS system in duplicate. Each sample was analyzed against a blank organic solvent containing a similar type of organic solvent used in the extraction process each time.
MS mode liynosus used during analytical scanning from 20 to atomic mass units amu. The blank was injected first each time, followed by the sample injection. The chromatograms obtained from the total ion current TIC were integrated without any correction for co-eluting peaks, and the results were expressed as total abundance. All animals were maintained at the animal house, and tap water was allowed ad libitum.
The animals were acclimatized to the experimental environment prior to commencement of the study. The rats were divided into the following four groups of five animals each: Following sacrifice, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid BALF was obtained using an endotracheal tube by instilling and aspirating the trachea with PBS solution.
The total inflammatory cell number was quantified by counting the number of cells from at least five squares of the haemocytometer after excluding dead cells stained with trypan blue.
Cytokine concentrations were calculated from standard curves that were generated using respective recombinant interleukins. The tissue was subsequently mounted and cover-slipped with di-n-butyl phthalate in xylene DPX mounting rhinoceruw.
The infiltration intensity at peribronchial and perivascular inflammatory spaces was scored as the approximate number of cell layers around vessels or lighosus following criteria adapted from Tournoy et al. Whole lung sections were assigned using a reproducible scoring system developed for a murine model Curtis, et al. For each rat, randomly distributed airway rhincerus in the lung were analysed, and their mean scores were calculated.
The inflammation present was evaluated with a double-blinded scoring method. Quantitative analysis of the lung inflammation score was performed using a Mirax Image viewer Carl Zeiss, Jenna, Germany.
Overall, eighteen constituents were extracted by the five solvents petroleum ether, diethyl ether, hexane, ethyl acetate and methanol Fig.
The constituent with the greatest proportion in L. Volatile compositions of L. A preliminary study was conducted prior to the present investigation to optimize L. The sensitization method was modified from a previous study [ 20 ] based on similar preliminary optimization study, linosus i.
As in asthmatic models, airway obstructions and difficulties in breathing are assumed to result from the responses of immunoglobulins and cytokine levels, which lead to worsening of asthma symptoms.
Eosinophils are also found in large numbers within the submucosa and epithelium in the allergic model. Most allergic mediators are stimulated by IgE and are released into the blood stream in response to inflammatory reactions [ 9 ]. In addition, BALF biofluid is widely accepted as a reliable sample with which to determine the composition of secreted pulmonary proteins and the products of activated cells.
High numbers of inflammatory cells in BALF indicate inflammation and an allergic condition. However, the reduction observed with dexamethasone was slightly more prominent when compared to L.
The untreated group had the highest level of eosinophils, indicating marked induction of allergic asthma. The level of eosinophils in the untreated group was also significantly elevated when compared to the normal group. The effect of L. Significantly different within treatment. Similarly, there was also a significant reduction in the mean serum IgE levels among animals receiving L.
The reduction in the levels of Ghinocerus and Th2 cytokines indicate successful asthmatic treatment. In comparison, the IgE levels in the untreated group were significantly elevated when compared to the normal group.
The levels of IL-4 Rhinoccerus. There was also a reduction in the IL level among rhinocerue receiving L. However, the reduction in IL observed among animals receiving L. The levels of all Th2 cytokines in the untreated groups were rhinocreus elevated when compared to the normal group. Haematoxylin and eosin staining was performed on the lung tissues to analyze the effects of L. The lung tissue section of ovalbumin-induced asthmatic rats was characterized by the presence of dense peribronchial inflammation due to leukocyte infiltration when compared with the normal tissue Fig.
Lignosus rhinocerus – Wikipedia
Substances that can attenuate this inflammation indicate that they are effective anti-asthmatic agents. In rhinoverus, the inflammation score indicated that both the L. Our study is the first to elucidate the composition of hot water extract of L. Alkanes were the major group found to be present, while linoleic acid was the major constituent detected.
To our knowledge, our study is also the first to confirm the airway inhibition effects of L. The GC-MS analysis was conducted following a sequential extraction method that employs both polar and non-polar properties of solvents in separating compounds based on polarity.
In this study, a simple liquid-liquid extraction method is beneficial because it does not involve a heating process, which minimizes damage to the volatiles and can prevent the formation of other artefacts [ 2425 ]. This sequential liynosus conserves the amount of volatiles as well as selectively improves the process and the recovery of different types of extracts from analogous materials. Most of the compounds detected were from the alkane group.
In comparison, a study of other types of medicinal mushrooms such as Termitomyces sp. Another researcher reported the presence of octadecane 0. However, our study detected the presence of higher amounts of octadecane Similar to our study, a study on Agaricus bisporus comparing different strains of mushrooms strains and reported high amounts of non-polar compounds such as octadecane In addition, several studies [ 28 — 30 ] have reported fatty acids to be the predominant constituent in mushrooms.
Similar to our study, the fatty acid profile of several Tricholoma species, such as T. Linoleic acid is a known precursor of 1-octenol alcohol of fungiwhich functions as the principal aromatic compound in most fungi [ 33 — 35 ]. A study on L.
The presence of a similar compound rginocerus also detected in the rhinoerus lipids of Ganoderma lucidum 0. In our study, 2,3-dihydroxypropyl elaidate was reported to be present at approximately Lignouss comparison, linoleic acid was compared in different parts of A.
Linoleic acid was present in varying concentrations in different types of mushrooms, and unique properties were observed. In fact, such variations are key to understanding the aromatic and other medicinal properties. This study is the first to report on the inhibition effects of L. Asthmatic model of Sprague Dawley rat was used in the study and dexamethasone was used as a positive control as this compound is commonly used as a potent inhibitor of airway inflammation and remodelling.
The administration of corticosteroids has been demonstrated to inhibit structural changes associated with airway fibrosis in animal models and is therefore widely utilized as a control in asthma studies [ 41 ]. In the lignoeus of the experimental design, all rats in this study except for the normal group underwent sensitization on days 1 primary sensitization and 14 secondary sensitization.
The purpose of an additional sensitization step on day 14 is to ensure that the levels of airway eosinophils do not revert back to the baseline, as well as to avoid the development of tolerance.
In addition, these sensitizations were coupled with OVA along with alum and Bordetella pertussis to enhance Th2-dominated responses [ 42 ]. Generally, the activation, growth and differentiation of eosinophils are conducted by Th2-dominated responses [ 43 ]. It is reported that cytokines secreted by Th2 cells can help in the recruitment and activation of eosinophils in the nasal region.